Meher Bano Harri
M.Sc. (Zoology), M.Ed. (Science, Education)
Course: Curriculum Development and Instructions
Important Note: This material is written for our academic notes which are published keeping in view the needs of other students.
This means that the content should be credited and the website referenced so that copyright principles are adhered to.
This material is in accordance with the curriculum of Allama Iqbal Open University Level M.Ed. So visit the University website for further study.
Full details of this content can be obtained by contacting us.
The following points are often important in the minds of the people regarding the educational objectives and studies which we have personally studied and re-arranged it keeping in view the educational objectives especially the need of a Masters or Graduate student. Be helpful the key points are as follows.
- Methods of curriculum evaluation
- 4 types of curriculum evaluation
- Process of curriculum evaluation
- Curriculum evaluation Wikipedia
- Steps of curriculum evaluation process
Curriculum is often misinterpreted as student evaluation refers to the collection of information’s on which judgments might be e about the worth and effectiveness of a particular program.it includes of course actually making those judgments so that decisions might be about the future of program me as it stands whether to retain modified it through or through it out altogether.
Students evaluation refers to the collection of information on which judgment are usually made about the progresses of practical students in the programs. It might draw on a number of assessments of a range of student’s capabilities.
Evaluation is necessary for decision making at all stages in curriculum planning and development. The emphasis on evaluation guidelines tends to vary department on which decide evaluation intended to serve.
Guba and stuff (1970) identify four types of decisions which are involved in curriculum evaluation. Certain features of their work are useful as an organizing framework for examining curriculum evaluation .these types include the discussion about;
- A) Planning intentions e.g. which objectives to select.
- b) Planning procedure e.g. which personal, methods, and materials to attempts.
- c) Implementing procedures e.g. whether to continue, modify or abandon a procedural plan.
- D) Outcomes e.g. which intentions are realized, to what extent and by whom.
When examine evaluation as an element of the curriculum. Evaluation is seen as serving all for decision types,
a) Planning intentions:-
The type of information which one might need to make decisions about aims and objectives to set would include information about the students, their previous knowledge and experience, their inters and unpaired needs and their particular abilities. Few evaluation guidelines suggest much about how to carry out a situations analysis of this type.
b) Planning procedures:-
As in the above case few evaluation guidelines suggests ways in which to collect Data which might be useful in determining the people, methods, or materials to use in the curriculum .such information might be drawn from research findings (e.g. about the use of specific materials) observations of their teachers (their success with different methods) and knowledge of the particular skills and expertise (ability to use music or drama in their teaching
c) Implementing procedures:-
The evaluation of the curriculum implementation areas for teachers.
It all the time anyway informally or intuitively. Evaluation guideline usually Offer more suggestions in this area for example they may give advice about
How to monitor student progress, questioning technique to establish levels of
Understanding or they may offer ideas about how to observations group in a systematic way or evaluate reactions to evaluate reactions to particular Materials which were used.
This is the area on which most evaluation sections of curriculum packages or
Documents concentrate. All kinds of tests and objectivities may be suggest or used to make decisions about student outcomes.
Such methods of evaluation include:-
A great deal of data can be collected through the use of simple diary.it is true that data collected in this way will often be subjective. However diaries provide an easy way of systematically gathering data and as entire accumulate it becomes possible to review them and discover what patterns are emerging. Diaries are also a painless way of monitoring certain events.
Experience has shown questionnaires to be the most commonly used instruments for gathering information they obtain information from a large group they can be constructed by a variety of people with apparent case and allow trends to be quickly indicated questionnaires have a number of disadvantages. They tend to be over-used are difficult to design and present problems misinterpretations.
Although criticized for its subjectivity or because it can impose a structure yet the interview is a useful way of collecting information from individuals or small groups. As the interview is essentially a form of communications, it is important that one as an interviewee can express feelings, solicits feedback and shares of oneself.
One way of finding out what is going on in class room is to take look. Classroom observations insight into the effects of techniques, strategies and personal style. What to look, for depends of type of questions being asked or information being asked or information being sought. Obviously all teachers observe in their day to day activities but it is possible to do it in a more systematic manner to find out specific information.
Discuss the classroom implication of cooperative learning?
Cooperative learning is an educational approach which aims to organize classroom activities into academic and social learning experiences there is much more to cooperative learning than merely arranging students into groups and it has been described as structuring positive interdependence students must work in groups to complete task collectively towards academic goals. Unlike individual learning which can be competitive in nature students learning cooperatively capitalized on one another resources and skills asking one another for information evaluating one another’s ideas monitoring one another’s work etc. Furthermore the teacher’s role changing from giving information to facilitating students learning .Every one succeeds when the group succeeds. Rose and Smith (1995) describe successful cooperative learning tasks intellectually demanding, creative, open ended, and involve higher order thinking tasks. Cooperative learning has also been linked to increase levels of student’s satisfaction.
Five essential elements are identified for the successful in cooperation of cooperative learning in the classroom
- b) Positive interdependence
- c) Individual and group accountability
- d) Promote interaction
- e) Students the required interpersonal a small group skills
- f) Group processing
According to Johnson and john sons meta-analysis students in cooperative learning settings compare to those in individualistic or competitive learning settings achieve more reason better, gain higher self-esteem like classmates and the learning tasks more and have more perceived social support.
Theories of cooperative learning:-
Social interdependence theory:-
Social interdependence exists when the outcomes of individuals are effected by their own and other actions .There are two types of social interdependence positive(when the actions of individuals promote the achievements of joint goals)and negative(when the actions of individual s obstruct the achievements of each other’s goals).
Types of cooperative learning:-
Formal cooperative learning:-
Formal cooperative learning is structured, facilitated, and monitored by the educator over time and used to achieve group goals in task work for example completing a unit. Any course material or assignments can be adapted to this type of learning and groups can vary from two to six people with discussion from lasting few minutes up to an entire period.
- The jigsaw technique
- Assignments that involve group problem solving and decision making
- Laboratory or experiment assignment
- Peer review work e.g. editing writing assignments
2.Informal cooperative learning:-
In cooperates group learning with passive teaching by drawing attention to material through small groups throughout the lesson or the discussion by the end of the lesson. And typically involves groups of two e.g. turns to your partner discussion .These groups are often group temporality and can change from lesson to lesson.
“Informal cooperative learning consists of having students work together to achieve a joint learning goal in temporary, ad-hoc groups that last from a few minutes to one class period. (David W. Johnson, Roger T. Johnson and Edythe Johnson Holubec)” Learn more
Characteristics of cooperative learning:-
- Students are working in heterogeneous groups
- Playing the games makes the students to move into homogeneous and high level groups.
- Understanding other skills
Advantages of cooperative learning:-
The involvement of students in higher learning
- The students get excited about earning.
- Knowledge is obtained from the students rather than solely from the teacher
- Fosters positive attitude in the students such as cooperation, tolerance.
- Train students to express or convey idea
Benefits of cooperative learning:-
- Cooperative learning helps to:
- Raise achievements of students
- Build positive relationships among students important for creating a learning community that values diversity
- Provide experiences that develop both good learning skills and social skills.
- Higher achievement
- Increased retention
- More positive relationship and a wider circle of friends
- Greater intrinsic motivation
- Higher self esteem
- Greater social support
- More on task behavior
- Better attitudes towards teachers and school
- When students are working towards a common goal, academic work becomes an activity values by peers.
- Students are motivated to help one another learns
- Students are able to translate the teacher’s language into student’s language from one another.
Analytical procedures for content selection are most widely used?
Selection and Organization of content:-
Curriculum informal education a curriculum (plural curricula or curriculums) is the set of course and their content offered at a school or university. Textbook or course book is a manual of instruction in any branch of study. Text books are produced according to the demands of educational institutions self-sufficiency to help learner attain maximum self-sufficiency in the most economical manner is the main guiding principle of subject matter or content selection cited by Bilbao et al.2008 although the economy of learning implies less teaching efforts and the less use of educational resources, students gain more results .they can cope up with the Learning outcomes effectively. This criteria means that students should be given a chance to experiment, observe and do field study them to learn independently with this principle in mind, I suggest that for a high school curriculum or preparatory year, there should be a one day independent learning activity each week however, this should be carefully by the teacher they should output from the activity.
The subject matter or content is significant if it is selected and organize for the development or activities, skills, processes and attitude.it also develops the three domains of learning namely the cognitive effective and psychomotor skills and consider the culture aspects the learners particularly if your students comes from different cultural background and races the subject must be cultured sensitive in short select content or subject matter that can achieve the overall the aims of two curriculum.
Selection and organization of methods:-
Process of selecting curriculum elements form the subject, the current social life and the student’s experiences than designing the selected curriculum elements appropriately so they can form the curriculum structure and type.
Integration sequence continuity:-
Criteria for effective curriculum organization.
A curriculum design is a framework or plan of action for preparing a course of study or set of student’s experiences. It is a deliberate process of devising, planning and selecting the elements, techniques and procedures of curriculum. Curriculum design is a method of thinking. Curriculum design involves the creation of set of operating principles or criteria based on theory that guide the selection and the organization of the content and the methodology use to teach that content with the accelerated rate of social change .schools are preparing youth for adulthood in a society not yet envision by its members. Hawley’s words still ring true “It’s not a question whether or not to change but whether or not we can control the way we are changing .The way we are changing, we are living in an Alice in an wonderland world where you have to run just to stay where you are .To get anywhere you have to run even faster than that the pieces on the chase board keep changing the rules are never the same”.
Importance of curriculum design:-
An effective curriculum must be built on a solid philosophical foundation that answer the question of what educational purposes she school should seek to achieve .The classical model of curriculum design proposed by Tyler in (1949),asked four questions of curriculum planner. Models of curriculum design, Tayler step for curriculum design included stating objectives, selecting learning experiences, organizing the experiences and evaluating results.
Principles of curriculum designs:-
Fiorina and novel suggests the following steps,
- Identification of the problems
- Diagnosis of the problem
- Search for alternative solutions
- Selection for the best solutions.
- Ratification of the solution by the organization
- Authorization of the solutions.
- Preparation for adopting of the solution
- Adoption of the solution
- Direction and guidance of the staff.
- Evaluation of the effectiveness of the solution steps in curriculum design.
According to M.k Ghandi, education is the development of all aspects that is body mind and spirit. So mind without activities cannot develop the personality perfectly. So education must give importance to activities. Education which has no link with life is meaningless. Activity/experience basis Based curriculum.
Environmental activity: These activities include nature study, excursion, and survey social visit. These activities include nature study.
Physical activity: These activities aim at physical development of a child include physical training, games and sports. Activities under activity based curriculum.
Anesthetic activity: Music, art and craft includes in this type of activities. These provide opportunities for self-expression and development of inborn creative facilities.
Constructive activity: With these activities love for dignity of labor, production efficiency may be developed. Hand work, craft work and repairing tool.
These activities aim at community development and include community projects, first aid, social services etc. These activities help to socialization of the child.
Learning by doing:
This method can fulfill the natural urge of growing child and help them to learn the lesson.
The curriculum development process takes information from a subject matter expert and creates instructions; it goes through steps of design. In each step are important team members including project managers, instructional designers, and writer’s copy editor. The team works together to create effective content.
The first step of curriculum development process involves planning and determining who the learner is and what they need to get out of the material.
The team has extracted the information and identified the learner; it is time to begin developing the content. Clear objectives include
As the instructional designers create the objectives. They carefully connect them to the content. The objectives are measurable, which ensures the learning outcome can occur. The team examines the environment in which the content will be used. The team plans how to sequence the content and what they delivery method to use. They perform research for appropriate material.
Research is needed to determine whether analyses of the intended curricula are validated by the aspherical outcomes of the enacted curricula. Content analysis is also valuable to inform the conduct of comparative studies. A content analysis can help an evaluator to select appropriate outcome measures to measure particularly important content strands, and to concentrate on the essential aspects of implementation and professional development. For these multiple reason, careful increasingly sophisticated content analysis will make important contributions to the evaluation of to the effectiveness of a curricular program.