The term “growth and development” mean the changes that take place in human behavior particularly in a child after concept right from the womb to womb. Growth is external in nature. It can be directly measured. It means increase and or addition in size and weight its chief concern is with the physical aspects of an individual. Growth occurs in particular age.
On the other hand, developments internal in nature, it can only be felt. It means working of the internal organs and their functions. Growth and development reinter-related. Both are interdependent and influence each other .When growth stops because of illness, on there is premature stoppage of growth, development is equally effected.
Principles of growth and development:
The important principles of growth and development include the following:
- Growth is continuous .The entire life span has been divided into different stages like babyhood, Early childhood
- Development can be predicted
- Growth follows pattern such as Cephalous caudal which proceed and proceed from had downward and proximal distal which proceeds from spinal cord outward.
- Development in rapid in early years of life.
- Development is regressive which is called going back in regression.
- Growth and development is cumulative .Sometimes little things add up in life an influence .There are various types of growth and development such as development and education ,mental growth and development and lingual development.
The nature of Growth and development:
Development is a series of orderly progression of changing towards the goals of materiality. Orderly refers to the arrangements of the changes. Progression refers to directionally of changes .The directions of course is towards adaptations which is conductive to survival .However growth is generally taken to mean dimensionally argumentations cellular multiplication or quantitative change in size weight and number.
Growth and development are sometimes used synonymously to differentiate b/w these two terms, growth is generally taken to quantitative in nature whereas development is qualitative. Physical development is both qualitative and quantitative and implies increasing capacities and abilities maturing functional improvement and progress towards higher levels of effectiveness and potentiality.
Five important characteristics of human growth and development are discussed be:
Development is continuous:
Development is continuous process, it may be covered .Diseases or severe malnutrition may halt its continuity for a time.
Development is orderly:
It proceeds from general to specific responses.
Development id sequential:
It follow a pattern for example whereas steps follow one another e.g. puberty before full physical stature.
Development is unique:
Children’s differ individually with regards to their time schedule.
Development is inter-related:
Although three type of development i.e. mental, social and emotional are interrelated. Social development is nothing but a reference of emotional development.
Two principles of development and growth:
In addition to these general characteristics growth and development are based on the following two principles.
Interaction of heredity and environment:
The individual is the product of interaction b/w his heredity and environment. Though the genes are important in determining the rate and quality of its growth and development, his social, cultural environment. Physical surrounding and the emotional climates have their own impact.
Interaction of maturation and learning;
Growth and development occur as a result of both maturation and learning. Maturation refers to changes in a development organisms due to unfolding and ripening of abilities characteristics, traits and potentialities present at birth.
Growth is very significant and includes in changes in skeletal dimensions, height and weight, body proportions and teeth. Motor development is of strength, speed, precisions in the use of speech organs, hands, fingers, arms and legs and other bodily muscles motor behavior serves as a vehicles for the child’s social contracts. Growth is an ability to perform motor acts seems to reach its maximum at the age of 14 year for girls and 17 years for boys with increased strength boys develops competitive athletic skills whereas girls concentrate their efforts in developing skills like dancing, painting etc. The superiority of the boys in some motor performance seems to be due to in born factors and cultural pressures.
Developing psychologists are not only persons interested in the growth and development of human organisms.
Presented by: Hussain Ali Harri
Prepared by: Meher Bano Harri
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