SELECTION AND ORGANIZATION OF CONTENT
Curriculum informal education a curriculum (plural curricula or curriculums) is the set of course and their content offered at a school or university. Textbook or course book is a manual of instruction in any branch of study. Text books are produced according to the demands of educational institutions self-sufficiency to help learner attain maximum self-sufficiency in the most economical manner is the main guiding principle of subject matter or content selection cited by bilbao et al.2008 although the economy of learning implies less teaching efforts and the less use of educational resources, students gain more results .they can cope up with the
Learning outcomes effectively. This criteria means that students should be given a chance to experiment, observe and do field study them to learn independently with this principle in mind, I suggest that for a high school curriculum or preparatory year, there should be a one day independent learning activity each week however, this should be carefully by the teacher they should output from the activity.
The subject matter or content is significant if it is selected and organize for the development or activities, skills, processes and attitude.it also develops the three domains of learning namely the cognitive effective and psychomotor skills and consider the culture aspects the learners particularly if your students comes from different cultural background and races the subject must be cultured sensitive in short select content or subject matter that can achieve the overall the aims of two curriculum.
Selection and organization of methods:
Process of selecting curriculum elements form the subject, the current social life and the student’s experiences than designing the selected curriculum elements appropriately so they can form the curriculum structure and type.
Integration sequence continuity: Criteria for effective curriculum organization.
A curriculum design is a framework or plan of action for preparing a course of study or set of student’s experiences. It is a deliberate process of devising, planning and selecting the elements, techniques and procedures of curriculum. Curriculum design is a method of thinking. Curriculum design involves the creation of set of operating principles or criteria based on theory that guide the selection and the organization of the content and the methodology use to teach that content with the accelerated rate of social change .schools are preparing youth for adulthood in a society not yet envision by its members. Hooleys words still ring true “It’s not a question whether or not to change but whether or not we can control the way we are changing .The way we are changing, we are living in an Alice in an wonderland world where you have to run just to stay where you are .To get anywhere you have to run even faster than that the pieces on the chase board keep changing the rules are never the same”.
Importance of curriculum design:
An effective curriculum must be built on a solid philosophical foundation that answer the question of what educational purposes she school should seek to achieve .The classical model of curriculum design proposed by Tyler in (1949),asked four questions of curriculum planner. Models of curriculum design, Tayler step for curriculum design included stating objectives, selecting learning experiences, organizing the experiences and evaluating results.
Principles of curriculum designs:
Fiorina and novel suggests the following steps,
- Identification of the problems
- Diagnosis of the problem
- Search for alternative solutions
- Selection for the best solutions.
- Ratification of the solution by the organization
- Authorization of the solutions.
- Preparation for adopting of the solution
- Adoption of the solution
- Direction and guidance of the staff.
- Evaluation of the effectiveness of the solution steps in curriculum design.
According to M.k Ghandi, education is the development of all aspects that is body mind and spirit. So mind without activities cannot develop the personality perfectly. So education must give importance to activities. Education which has no link with life is meaningless. Activity/experience basis Based curriculum.
These activities include nature study, excursion, and survey social visit. These activities include nature study.
These activities aim at physical development of a child include physical training, games and sports. Activities under activity based curriculum.
Music, art and craft includes in this type of activities. These provide opportunities for self-expression and development of inborn creative facilities.
With these activities love for dignity of labor, production efficiency may be developed. Hand work, craft work and repairing tool.
These activities aim at community development and includes community projects, first aid, social services etc. These activities help to socialization of the child.
Learning by doing:
This method can fulfill the natural urge of growing child and help them to learn the lesson.
The curriculum development process takes information from a subject matter expert and create instructions, It goes through steps of design. In each step are important team members including project managers, instructional designers, and writer’s copy editor. The team works together to create effective content.
The first step of curriculum development process involves planning and determining who the learner is and what they need to get out of the material.
The team has extracted the information and identified the learner, it is time to begin developing the content. Clear objectives include
As the instructional designers create the objectives. They carefully connect them to the content. The objectives are measurable, which ensures the learning outcome can occur. The team examines the environment in which the content will be used. The team plans how to sequence the content and what they delivery method to use. They perform research for appropriate material.
Research is needed to determine whether analyses of the intended curricula are validated by the aspherical outcomes of the enacted curricula. Content analysis are also valuable to inform the conduct of comparative studies. A content analysis can help an evaluator to select appropriate outcome measures to measure particularly important content strands, and to concentrate on the essential aspects of implementation and professional development. For these multiple reason, careful increasingly sophisticated content analysis will make important contributions to the evaluation of to the effectiveness of a curricular program.
Presented by: Hussain Ali Harri
Prepared by: Meher Bano Harri
Level: M.Ed. (Science Education)
Important Note: This material is written for our academic notes which are published keeping in view the needs of other students.
This means that the content should be credited and the website referenced so that copyright principles are adhered to.
This material is in accordance with the curriculum of Allama Iqbal Open University Level M.Ed. So visit the University website for further study.
Full details of this content can be obtained by contacting us.