What is Ego? Ego Psychology definition, difference between Ego and Superego

difference between Ego and Superego

Introduction and Definition of Ego in Educational Phycology:

The study of personality is the apex of all psychology. Infect, once of the aims of education is to develop the personality of the students. Each one of us has a personality which determines our behavior in a situation. There are many approaches to the definition of the personality.  Various scholars have given different definitions to make clear the meaning of personality .According to Gerome (1971)”personality is the sum of activities that can be discovered by actual observations over long enough period of time to give reliable information”.

Likewise Eysenck (1953) says “Personality is the more or less stable enduring organization s of a person characters .Temperature intellects and physique which determine his unique adjustment to the environment”.

In addition to the above mentioned description there are more views regarding the meaning given to personality by scholars of different categories.

  1. Philosophical view:

The meaning of personality according to David R.S (1988) is a philosophical view and he calls it completeness.”

This ideal of completeness of a human being denotes his personality.

  1. Social view:

According to many sociologists, people are images of the society they live in. According to Ellsworth Faris “Personality is the subjective side of a man’s culture, his social effectiveness.”

  1. Biophysical view:

Whatever an individual possesses inside him represents his personality because the external behavior of the individual only expresses his internal characteristics.

  1. Psychological views:

According to this view all the aspects of an individual’s developments represent his personality. These are the physical mental emotional and social facts of his individuality Woodworth says that “Personality is the total quality of individual behavior.

In various aspects of an individual personality by emotional, social, volitional and moral sides are included.

Characteristics of the nature of individual’s personality includes self-consciousness, uniqueness. Sociability, adjustability, persistency, dynamism, unity and integrity and goal orientation. While consciousness and an objective attitude develop in the dividable with time as result of a social experiences, social adjustability develops in one’s personality. The personality and the behavior of a person is a goal oriented .All the aspects of a person’s personality exhibit unity and integrity such as physical, social, emotional and mental. We call this unity as personality .In the other words the whole personality is effected by all its aspects. In fact, personality is derived from the Greek word” persona”. In the writings of Cicero, there are at least four distinct meaning of persona .These includes:

  1. As one appears to others.
  2. The part that one place in life
  3. An assemblage of personal qualities that fits a man for his work
  4. Distinctions and dignity

General characteristics of personality are as under:

  1. It is continuous.
  2. It is a product of heredity and environment.
  3. It is a product of inner aspects and outer ones.
  4. It is unique.
  5. It has two functions-overt and convert.
  6. It is dynamic.
  7. It has certain conscious and certain unconscious motivations.
  8. It is the end product of learning.

       As far as personality development is concerned it results from a combination of inherited and environment factors. Twins brought up in separate environment show a greater equality of score in intelligence between twins is explained on the basis of their greater similarity in heredity but environment point out that the equality of intelligence scores is not as high as between the twin’s reared at the same place, which points to the influence of the environment.

References and important links:

Id, Ego, and Superego




Presented by: Hussain Ali Harri

Prepared by: Meher Bano Harri

Level: M.Ed. (Science Education)

Important Note: This material is written for our academic notes which are published keeping in view the needs of other students.

This means that the content should be credited and the website referenced so that copyright principles are adhered to.

This material is in accordance with the curriculum of Allama Iqbal Open University Level M.Ed. So visit the University website for further study.

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