Importance of Science knowledge for Teacher Educator

The nature of science in science education

Course: Teaching Strategies in Science Education

Describe the nature of Science by providing examples from real life. Also highlight its importance of science knowledge for teacher educator?

What is Science?

Science is the study of natural world. Science is defined as “The knowledge gained through observation, experimentations and calculations is called Science. Science is broad based human enterprise that may be defined differently by individual who view it. A layman may define science as a body of scientific information; the scientists might view a method by which hypothesis are tested (e.g., a way investigating); a philosopher may regret it was a way of questioning the truthfulness of knowledge. Science should be viewed as a way of thinking pursuit of understanding nature, a way of investigating, and a body of established know ledge. Science teacher are responsible for developing an adequate understanding of the science in their students. For teachers to accomplish this task, it is imperative that they first possess a clear concept of science and the scientific enterprise.
Students must learn factual information, but, more important, they must discover ideas for themselves through laboratory activities, field studies, and library work. Only through these activities will they learn that science is a “ way of knowing “(Gould 1984,P,6)and not merely a body of information found in textbook or obtained from the teacher.
Science teacher and educator must not take for granted that, just because students enroll in science course and participate in laboratory experiments, for example, they will develop a scientific value system.

The nature of science in science education (Historical Perspective):

Advocacy for students ‘understanding of science and its nature can be traced back to the early years of this century .although at the time the phrase “understanding the nature of science “was not clearly stated ,some elements and characteristics of science were noted as goals worth pursuing in science teaching. For example, Lederman (1992) reported that the central association of science and math teachers in (1907) strongly emphasized the scientific method and process of science in science teaching. Hodson (1991) cities Dewey’s 1916 argument that understanding scientific method is more important than the acquisition of scientific knowledge .Jaffe,(1938)in his high school textbook new world of chemistry listed nature of science objectives such as a willingness to swing judgment while experiments are in progress willingness to abandon in a theory in light of new evidence and knowledge that scientific laws may not be the ultimate truth.
In 1946, James Bryan Conant delivered his famous Terry lectures at Yale advocating a historical approach to science instruction.
There are two major aims of science-teaching; one is knowledge, and the other is enterprise. From science courses, pupils should acquire a useful command of science concepts and principles. Science is more than a collection of isolated and assorted facts….a student should learn something about the character of scientific knowledge, how has been developed, and how it is used (Hurd, 1960, p.34)

Where did Science Education come from? or Beginning of science education:

Science education comes from Schwab (1964) who was both a philosopher and science educator he correctly observed that science is taught is an “unmitigated rhetoric of conclusions in which the current and temporal constructions of scientific knowledge are conveyed as empirical, literal, and irrevocable truths “biological science curriculum studies programs were important attempts to illustrate both the products of science in formal curricula.
At the turn of decade, several important books were published advocating and defining elements of the nature of science necessary for inclusion in school science curricula. Robinson, (1968) in the nature of science and science teaching provided science educators ready access to the philosophy of science for the first time. In addition, he reviewed many of the important concepts. From the philosophy of science including the value of inquiry learning, the nature of explanation, and the character of observation both in science and in science learning.
Recently this disheartening situation is facing more aggressive attack discussions concerning a role for nature of science in school science experiences should include significant attention to how science works including how knowledge is created and established.

Incorporating the Nature of Science in school Science:

Incorporating the nature of science in school science has been widely embraced by organizations such as the associations for science educations, (1981) in Britain and organizations in the united states such as the national science teachers associations, (1995) the American association for the advancement of science, (1989,1993) and the national research Council, (1996).

The nature of science in Science Education (A rationale):

A number of studies exist that document students ‘misconceptions concerning the nature of science (clough, 1995 ;lederman,1992;meyling,1997;rowell and cowthron,1982;rubba Horner and smith;1981).Ryan and aikenhead,1992) collected the responses of more than 2000 upper secondary students, conclude that confused science with technology and were only superficially aware of the private and public side of science an effect that values have on scientific knowledge.
While acknowledging that a number of a number of out-of-school factors misrepresent the nature of science, overwhelming evidence exists that school science is at least equally culpable .almost 50 years ago Anderson,(1950) concluded that teachers were more concerned with imparting scientific facts then helping students understand the process of science—an indication that something was awry regarding teachers notions of the nature of science. Four years later they argued (Rowell and caw thorn, (1982) that many science teachers subscribe to an Inducvist –empiricist outlook of science.
Tragically, too often science teachers simply do not include nature of science issues in the design of science learning plans (belle al .1997; king 1991; lakin and Wellington, 1994), likely because they lack knowledge of them.

The role and chapter of the nature of science:

The significant misconceptions that both students and teachers hold regarding the nature of science, by themselves, represent an important justification for including the social studies of science in science courses and preserve science teacher education programs.
Mattews, (1997)argues that questions regarding the nature of science are inherent in many education issues such as multicultural science the evolution’s /creation public education controversy ,feminist critiques of modern science and their suggestions for science program reform, the place of religion in science education environmentalism and new-age science, and the notion that learning science will results in an understanding of its nature while at the same time causing students to become more scientific in solving life’s problems.
Moreover, students in a recent study by Myeling (1997) showed significant interest in the nature of science.

Importance of science knowledge for Teacher Education:

Matthews (1994) has argued for the inclusion of NOS courses in science teacher education programs. The examples he provided demonstrates that a firm grounding in the nature of science is likely to enhance teachers’ ability to implement conceptual development in science may shed some light on individual cognition development (wander see, 1986) e.g. many student ideas parallel that of early scientific ideas ,suggested that “alternatively conceptions” may sometimes to a better descriptions than “misconceptions”. In other words teacher’s interest in NOS could assists in understanding the psychology of students teaching (Matthews, 1994).

Scientific knowledge is not exclusively determined empirically:

The history of science confirms that scientific knowledge is not exclusively determined empirically. The construction scientific knowledge (latour, 1987);latour and woolger,1986;knorr-cetina,1981;Kuhn,1970;mendelson,1977;mulkay and gilbert,1982;shaping,1982)has much in common with conceptual change. This makes the nature of science useful as a dis equilibrating agent in changing and teaching. e.g. Some of the resistance to conceptual change theory among classroom teachers arises from the mistaken notion that knowledge of the natural world is completely objective existing independently of the searching individual.

Children misconceptions difficulties in learning contemporary science:

History of science may also reveal a fierce battle to construct meaning concerning the natural world .this concerning, sometimes requiring enormous effort and time, is not a straightforward process. When science is seen in the this light children misconceptions difficulties in learning contemporary science ideas are understandable to assists in this process inquiry based or constructivist teaching , Daschle , 1987 states that teachers themselves need to have and adequate understanding of the nature of science.

The effect of teacher’s knowledge of the nature understanding:

Teachers represent the most variable in the class room learning equation. Even well-design NOS instructional packages that are at odds with the philosophical orientation of teachers may not be affected. Daschle, 1987 writes that in spite of attempts to “teacher proof” schooling through the enforcement of striated curriculum guidelines and teaching models, teachers will continue to make the most critical decision in the education of students.

Processes and construction of knowledge:

Other curricula designs also impacts students, about the nature of science. As the form of laboratory activities coveys much about processes and construction of knowledge. Unfortunately these experiences are a cookbook or verification type laboratory activity which again parries science as rhetoric of conclusions totally divorced from human influence. Clough and Clark 1994 have suggested a different approach to laboratory exercises that more actively engaged students in science content and accusatory portray many significant issues in the nature of science.

Despite the pervasive and critical role of curricula:

Despite the pervasive and critical role of curricula , evidence is clear and substantial that teacher are the most influential factor in educational change .(Duffee and Akienhead 1992;eyolon and linn 1989;fullan).for instance after observing how science teachers assimilate new writing activities into their odd ways of thinking , longer and Applebee(1987).

Student experience illustrates the learning process:

Teachers translate the written curriculum into a form ready for classroom application and decide what how and why to learn. As Eisner (1985) writes “in the final analysis what teacher do in the classroom and what students experience define the educational process. “In fact curricula has been claimed to constitute only five percent of the variance in the students’ learning(Welch1979) while science teachers believe knowledge and practices represent the bulk of what the science instructional experiences for students(smith1980).

The creativity and subjectivity of the language of humanity:

One of the dominant activities in the classes=room is teacher talk and therefore important implications for students understandings could be derived from an analysis of teachers, verbal behavior. Munbees analysis of language applies equally well to teachers verbal patterns. The six variables represent teacher’s conceptions of the nature of the science. By way of the language teachers use to convey the subject matter in an earlier paper Zeilders and ladder man (1987) conclude from his analysis that “The results reveal that the variables testable developmental arbitrary constructs anthropomorphic language creativity and subjective where highly significant and distinguishing between instrumental and realistic conceptions of the nature of the science with respect to the teachers language and subsequent changes in students orientations ,It is concluded that the ordinarily language teachers used to communicate science contents thus provide the context in which students formulate their own conception s of the nature of science.”

Presented by: Hussain Ali Harri

Prepared by: Meher Bano Harri

Level: M.Ed. (Science Education)

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8 thoughts on “Importance of Science knowledge for Teacher Educator”

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  2. Whether you believe in God or not, this is a must-read message!!!

    Throughout time, we can see how we have been slowly conditioned to come to this point where we are on the verge of a cashless society. Did you know that the Bible foretold of this event almost 2,000 years ago?

    In Revelation 13:16-18, we read,

    “He (the false prophet who decieves many by his miracles) causes all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on their right hand or on their foreheads, and that no one may buy or sell except one who has the mark or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.

    Here is wisdom. Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man: His number is 666.”

    Referring to the last generation, this could only be speaking of a cashless society. Why? Revelation 13:17 tells us that we cannot buy or sell unless we receive the mark of the beast. If physical money was still in use, we could buy or sell with one another without receiving the mark. This would contradict scripture that states we need the mark to buy or sell!

    These verses could not be referring to something purely spiritual as scripture references two physical locations (our right hand or forehead) stating the mark will be on one “OR” the other. If this mark was purely spiritual, it would indicate only in one place.

    For some time now, people have had RFID microchips implanted in their hand that is able to store all of their information in them, including their bank account; and it is outstanding how accurate the Bible is concerning this microchip.

    You can read more about it here–also to understand the mystery behind the number 666:

    The third angel’s warning in Revelation 14:9-11 states,

    “Then a third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, ‘If anyone worships the beast and his image, and receives his mark on his forehead or on his hand, he himself shall also drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out full strength into the cup of His indignation. He shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb. And the smoke of their torment ascends forever and ever; and they have no rest day or night, who worship the beast and his image, and whoever receives the mark of his name.'”

    Who is Barack Obama, and why is he still in the public scene?

    So what’s in the name? The meaning of someone’s name can say a lot about a person. God throughout history has given names to people that have a specific meaning tied to their lives. How about the name Barack Obama? Let us take a look at what may be hiding beneath the surface.

    Jesus says in Luke 10:18, “…I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven.”

    The Hebrew Strongs word (H1299) for “lightning”: “bârâq” (baw-rawk)

    In Isaiah chapter 14, verse 14, we read about Lucifer (Satan) saying in his heart:

    “I will ascend above the heights of the clouds, I will be like the Most High.”

    In the verses in Isaiah that refer directly to Lucifer, several times it mentions him falling from the heights or the heavens. The Hebrew word for the heights or heavens used here is Hebrew Strongs 1116: “bamah”–Pronounced (bam-maw’)

    In Hebrew, the letter “Waw” or “Vav” is often transliterated as a “U” or “O,” and it is primarily used as a conjunction to join concepts together. So to join in Hebrew poetry the concept of lightning (Baraq) and a high place like heaven or the heights of heaven (Bam-Maw), the letter “U” or “O” would be used. So, Baraq “O” Bam-Maw or Baraq “U” Bam-Maw in Hebrew poetry similar to the style written in Isaiah, would translate literally to “Lightning from the heights.” The word “Satan” in Hebrew is a direct translation, therefore “Satan.”

    So when Jesus told His disciples in Luke 10:18 that He beheld Satan fall like lightning from heaven, if this were to be spoken by a Jewish Rabbi today influenced by the poetry in the book of Isaiah, he would say these words in Hebrew–the words of Jesus in Luke 10:18 as, And I saw Satan as Baraq O Bam-Maw.

    The names of both of Obama’s daughters are Malia and Natasha. If we were to write those names backward (the devil does things in reverse) we would get “ailam ahsatan”. Now if we remove the letters that spell “Alah” (Allah being the false god of Islam), we get “I am Satan”. Coincidence? I don’t think so.

    Obama’s campaign logo when he ran in 2008 was a sun over the horizon in the west, with the landscape as the flag of the United States. In Islam, they have their own messiah that they are waiting for called the 12th Imam, or the Mahdi (the Antichrist of the Bible), and one prophecy concerning this man’s appearance is the sun rising in the west.

    “Then I saw another angel flying in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel to preach to those who dwell on the earth—to every nation, tribe, tongue, and people— saying with a loud voice, ‘Fear God and give glory to Him, for the hour of His judgment has come; and worship Him who made heaven and earth, the sea and springs of water.'” (Revelation 14:6-7)

    Why have the word’s of Jesus in His Gospel accounts regarding His death, burial, and resurrection, been translated into over 3,000 languages, and nothing comes close? The same God who formed the heavens and earth that draws all people to Him through His creation, likewise has sent His Word to the ends of the earth so that we may come to personally know Him to be saved in spirit and in truth through His Son Jesus Christ.

    Jesus stands alone among the other religions that say to rightly weigh the scales of good and evil and to make sure you have done more good than bad in this life. Is this how we conduct ourselves justly in a court of law? Bearing the image of God, is this how we project this image into reality?

    Our good works cannot save us. If we step before a judge, being guilty of a crime, the judge will not judge us by the good that we have done, but rather by the crimes we have committed. If we as fallen humanity, created in God’s image, pose this type of justice, how much more a perfect, righteous, and Holy God?

    God has brought down His moral laws through the 10 commandments given to Moses at Mt. Siani. These laws were not given so we may be justified, but rather that we may see the need for a savior. They are the mirror of God’s character of what He has put in each and every one of us, with our conscious bearing witness that we know that it is wrong to steal, lie, dishonor our parents, murder, and so forth.

    We can try and follow the moral laws of the 10 commandments, but we will never catch up to them to be justified before a Holy God. That same word of the law given to Moses became flesh about 2,000 years ago in the body of Jesus Christ. He came to be our justification by fulfilling the law, living a sinless perfect life that only God could fulfill.

    The gap between us and the law can never be reconciled by our own merit, but the arm of Jesus is stretched out by the grace and mercy of God. And if we are to grab on, through faith in Him, He will pull us up being the one to justify us. As in the court of law, if someone steps in and pays our fine, even though we are guilty, the judge can do what is legal and just and let us go free. That is what Jesus did almost 2,000 years ago on the cross. It was a legal transaction being fulfilled in the spiritual realm by the shedding of His blood.

    For God takes no pleasure in the death of the wicked (Ezekiel 18:23). This is why in Isaiah chapter 53, where it speaks of the coming Messiah and His soul being a sacrifice for our sins, why it says it pleased God to crush His only begotten Son.

    This is because the wrath that we deserve was justified by being poured out upon His Son. If that wrath was poured out on us, we would all perish to hell forever. God created a way of escape by pouring it out on His Son whose soul could not be left in Hades but was raised and seated at the right hand of God in power.

    So now when we put on the Lord Jesus Christ (Romans 13:14), God no longer sees the person who deserves His wrath, but rather the glorious image of His perfect Son dwelling in us, justifying us as if we received the wrath we deserve, making a way of escape from the curse of death–now being conformed into the image of the heavenly man in a new nature, and no longer in the image of the fallen man Adam.

    Now what we must do is repent and put our trust and faith in the savior, confessing and forsaking our sins, and to receive His Holy Spirit that we may be born again (for Jesus says we must be born again to enter the Kingdom of God–John chapter 3). This is not just head knowledge of believing in Jesus, but rather receiving His words, taking them to heart, so that we may truly be transformed into the image of God. Where we no longer live to practice sin, but rather turn from our sins and practice righteousness through faith in Him in obedience to His Word by reading the Bible.

    Our works cannot save us, but they can condemn us; it is not that we earn our way into everlasting life, but that we obey our Lord Jesus Christ:

    “And having been perfected, He became the author of eternal salvation to all who obey Him.” (Hebrews 5:9)

    “Now I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away. Also there was no more sea. Then I, John, saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. And I heard a loud voice from heaven saying, ‘Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and He will dwell with them, and they shall be His people. God Himself will be with them and be their God. And God will wipe away every tear from their eyes; there shall be no more death, nor sorrow, nor crying. There shall be no more pain, for the former things have passed away.’

    Then He who sat on the throne said, ‘Behold, I make all things new.’ And He said to me, ‘Write, for these words are true and faithful.’

    And He said to me, ‘It is done! I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End. I will give of the fountain of the water of life freely to him who thirsts. He who overcomes shall inherit all things, and I will be his God and he shall be My son. But the cowardly, unbelieving, abominable, murderers, sexually immoral, sorcerers, idolaters, and all liars shall have their part in the lake which burns with fire and brimstone, which is the second death.'” (Revelation 21:1-8).

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